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    Getting effective treatment depends on identifying the right problem. In a recent study, 88 percent of patients who came to Iraq Medical Center for a second opinion received a new or refined diagnosis.

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    Orthostatic hypotension (postural hypotension)

    Overview Orthostatic hypotension — also called postural hypotension — is a form of low blood pressure that happens when you stand up from sitting or lying down. Orthostatic hypotension can make you feel dizzy or lightheaded, and maybe even faint. Orthostatic hypotension may be mild and last for less than a few minutes. However, long-lasting orthostatic hypotension can signal more-serious problems, so it's important to see a doctor if you frequently feel lightheaded when standing up. Occasional (acute) orthostatic hypotension is usually caused by something obvious, such as dehydration or lengthy bed rest, and is easily treated. Chronic orthostatic hypotension ....

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    Orchitis

    Overview Orchitis (or-KIE-tis) is an inflammation of one or both testicles. Bacterial or viral infections can cause orchitis, or the cause can be unknown. Orchitis is most often the result of a bacterial infection, such as a sexually transmitted infection (STI). In some cases, the mumps virus can cause orchitis. Bacterial orchitis might be associated with epididymitis — an inflammation of the coiled tube (epididymis) at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm. In that case, it's called epididymo-orchitis. Orchitis causes pain and can affect fertility. Medication can treat the causes of bacterial orchitis and can ease ....

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    Oral thrush

    Overview Oral thrush Oral thrush — also called oral candidiasis (kan-dih-DIE-uh-sis) — is a condition in which the fungus Candida albicans accumulates on the lining of your mouth. Candida is a normal organism in your mouth, but sometimes it can overgrow and cause symptoms. Oral thrush causes creamy white lesions, usually on your tongue or inner cheeks. Sometimes oral thrush may spread to the roof of your mouth, your gums or tonsils, or the back of your throat. Although oral thrush can affect anyone, it's more likely to occur in babies and older adults because they have reduced immunity; in ....

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    Oral lichen planus

    Overview Oral lichen planus Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) inflammatory condition that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, swollen tissues; or open sores. These lesions may cause burning, pain or other discomfort. Oral lichen planus can't be passed from one person to another. The disorder occurs when the immune system mounts an attack against cells of the oral mucous membranes for unknown reasons (autoimmune disorder). Symptoms can usually be managed, but people who have oral lichen planus need regular monitoring because they may be at risk ....

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    Optic neuritis

    Overview Optic nerve Optic neuritis is an inflammation that damages the optic nerve, a bundle of nerve fibers that transmits visual information from your eye to your brain. Pain and temporary vision loss in one eye are common symptoms of optic neuritis. Optic neuritis is linked to multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease that causes inflammation and damage to nerves in your brain and spinal cord. Signs and symptoms of optic neuritis can be the first indication of multiple sclerosis, or they can occur later in the course of MS. Besides MS, optic neuritis can occur with other infections or immune ....

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    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)

    Overview Even the best-behaved children can be difficult and challenging at times. But if your child or teenager has a frequent and persistent pattern of anger, irritability, arguing, defiance or vindictiveness toward you and other authority figures, he or she may have oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). As a parent, you don't have to go it alone in trying to manage a child with ODD. Doctors, mental health professionals and child development experts can help. Behavioral treatment of ODD involves learning skills to help build positive family interactions and to manage problematic behaviors. Additional therapy, and possibly medications, may be needed ....

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    Ocular rosacea

    Overview Ocular rosacea is inflammation that causes redness, burning and itching of the eyes. It often develops in people who have rosacea, a chronic skin condition that affects the face. Sometimes ocular, or eye, rosacea is the first sign that you may later develop the facial type. Ocular rosacea (roe-ZAY-she-uh) primarily affects adults between the ages of 30 and 50. It seems to develop in people who tend to blush and flush easily. Medications and a good eye-care routine can help control the signs and symptoms. But treatment doesn't cure ocular rosacea. It often recurs after an apparent remission. Symptoms ....

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    Occupational asthma

    Overview Occupational asthma is asthma that's caused by breathing in chemical fumes, gases, dust or other substances on the job. Occupational asthma can result from exposure to a substance you're sensitive to — causing an allergic or immunological response — or to an irritating toxic substance. Like other types of asthma, occupational asthma can cause chest tightness, wheezing and shortness of breath. People with allergies or with a family history of allergies are more likely to develop occupational asthma. Avoidance of occupational triggers is an important part of management. Otherwise, treatment for occupational asthma is similar to treatment for other ....

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    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

    Overview Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) features a pattern of unreasonable thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead you to do repetitive behaviors (compulsions). These obsessions and compulsions interfere with daily activities and cause significant distress. You may try to ignore or stop your obsessions, but that only increases your distress and anxiety. Ultimately, you feel driven to perform compulsive acts to try to ease your stress. Despite efforts to ignore or get rid of bothersome thoughts or urges, they keep coming back. This leads to more ritualistic behavior — the vicious cycle of OCD. OCD often centers around certain themes — for ....

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    Obesity

    Overview Obesity is a complex disorder involving an excessive amount of body fat. Obesity isn't just a cosmetic concern. It increases your risk of diseases and health problems, such as heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure. Being extremely obese means you are especially likely to have health problems related to your weight. The good news is that even modest weight loss can improve or prevent the health problems associated with obesity. Dietary changes, increased physical activity and behavior changes can help you lose weight. Prescription medications and weight-loss surgery are additional options for treating obesity. Symptoms Obesity is diagnosed ....

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